On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Electric Arc Furnace and Induction FurnaceAuthor : hani Time : 2018/08/03
Electric furnaces that use electricity as heat energy, can be divided into two categories, one is an electric arc furnace, which is used to generate heat by the arc to melt scrap steel, and the other is an induction electric furnace, which generates heat by electromagnetic induction to melt scrap steel, especially in medium frequency induction. The electric furnace is representative.
1. The induction furnaces are heated faster and have higher thermal efficiency. The heat is generated in the furnace (liquid steel), so the heating speed is high. In the arc furnace, the heat of the arc after the material is cleared must be transferred to the molten steel through the slag, which is indirect heating. Thermal efficiency is poor. The furnace is in the shape of a basin, and plenty of the heat of the arc is lost through the furnace cover and the furnace wall.
2. The oxidative burning loss of elements in induction furnaces steelmaking is less. Because there is no ultra-high temperature of the arc in the induction furnace steelmaking, the burning rate of the elements in the steel is lower.
3. In induction furnaces steelmaking, the composition and the temperature of the molten steel are relatively uniform. Because it is the electromagnetic force, the inductor and the molten steel repel each other, the molten steel in the center part of the crucible rises, and the molten steel in the edge portion of the crucible falls. The phenomenon of molten steel circulation occurs. This electromagnetic stirring action promotes the uniformity of the chemical composition and temperature of the molten steel in the molten pool and facilitates the floating of non-metallic inclusions in the molten steel.
4. The slag in induction electric furnace steelmaking has a poor ability to participate in the metallurgical reaction. In electric arc furnace steelmaking, the temperature of the slag is higher than that of the molten steel, and the slag has a strong ability to participate in metallurgical reactions. In the induction furnace, the slag is heated by molten steel, and the temperature is low, so the ability to participate in the metallurgical reaction is weak. Therefore, in induction furnace steelmaking, the effects of metallurgical processes such as desulfurization, dephosphorization, and diffusion deoxidation are worse than those of the electric arc furnace.
5. The charge (scraper) for induction furnaces steelmaking is highly demanding. Because the metallurgical reaction ability of induction electric furnace steelmaking is weak and it is almost remelting, it needs better furnace material (good material, less rust, and oil), and the block shape cannot be too large.
6. Induction electric furnace steelmaking is more in line with environmental protection requirements, while electric arc furnace steelmaking produces a large amount of exhaust gas, waste residue, and noise, and has high energy consumption.
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